Wetlands are climate-friendly economic uses of natural and restored wetlands, including:
preparation of bog plant products;
maintenance and / or restoration of the hydrological regime typical of natural wetland habitats;
promotion of peatland;
protection of wetland biodiversity to ensure the ecological stability of wetlands.
It is an alternative to traditional agriculture, usually inseparable from land drainage (reclamation) in peat soils. Traditional agriculture in drained peatlands contributes to biodiversity loss, GHG emissions and pollution of surface water with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Wetlands can help restore wetlands damaged by drainage, intensive farming or peat mining. In order to be able to engage in wetland farming, it is necessary to restore a hydrological regime close to natural. Sustainable farming in natural and / or restored wetlands not only collects wetland products (aboveground biomass), preserves the peat layer, but also creates favorable conditions for peatlands. This is an important aspect of climate change mitigation.
In foreign countries, the biomass of reeds, willow, alder, cumin and other wetlands is valued as a renewable resource that can be used for feed preparation, energy use (raw material for biogas or biofuel direct combustion in heating boilers), construction materials, food and pharmaceutical industries, handicrafts etc.
Wetland plants suitable for wetlanding, where only aboveground biomass is intended for economic use, and the extinct underground parts of plants (roots, rhizomes) form peat over time in an oxygen-free environment.
Examples of plants (or groups of plants) suitable for wetland in Lithuanian natural conditions:
In the lowlands:
• marsh stripe ( Phalaris arundinacea );
• common reed ( Phragmites australis );
• sandpipers ( Typha spp.);
• water monkey ( Glyceria maxima );
• high whales ( Carex spp.);
• black alder ( Alnus glutinosa );
• common chard (Frangula alnus );
• triple bean ( Menyanthes trifoliata );
• marsh warbler ( Filipendula ulmaria );
• seashore ( Myrica gale ), etc.
• chemical ( Sphagnum spp.);
• Drosera rotundifolia;
• cranberry ( Vaccinium oxycoccos );
• rainbow ( Vaccinium uliginosum ) and others.
Wetlands are a great opportunity to reconcile the rather controversial issue of conserving wetlands (with their biodiversity) and reaping the economic benefits of their sustainable use.